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Wenn sich eine chinesische Frau für einen Mann entschieden hat, tut sie alles dafür, dass die Beziehung funktioniert und harmonisch ist.

Was erwarten sie von ihrem Ehemann? Diese Fragen werden nachfolgend beantwortet. Die schönen chinesischen Frauen haben einen starken Charakter und behaupten sich sehr erfolgreich in der Gesellschaft.

Häufig verdienen sie mehr Geld als ihre Ehemänner. Viele chinesische Frauen arbeiten sehr erfolgreich als internationale Stars.

Finanzieller Erfolg und Unabhängigkeit sind sehr wichtig für sie. Sie wirken stark, haben jedoch ein weiches Herz.

Die chinesischen Frauen sind hellhäutig und je nach Lebensraum schwach oder stark pigmentiert. Im Norden haben sie braune und im Süden schwarze Augen.

Schönes, glänzendes Haar wird als ein Zeichen der Gesundheit angesehen. Der Naturton ist meist dunkel bis fast schwarz.

Die Haare werden gern glatt und bis zum Kinn getragen. Viele Männer sind von der Schönheit der Chinesinnen und ihrem asiatischen Liebreiz fasziniert.

Daher nehmen sie sich für ihre Körperhygiene viel Zeit. Die gut gewählte Kleidung der stilvollen Damen ist meist sehr elegant.

Ein weiterer Grund, warum sich Männer von den chinesischen Frauen angezogen fühlen. Die Chinesen sind zurückhaltend und scheinbar passiv, doch in Wirklichkeit sind sie unabhängig und mutig.

Hinter der sanften Fassade verbirgt sich ein einzigartiger und starker Charakter. Sie sagen nie, dass irgendetwas einfach unmöglich ist, sondern sie stimmen jeder Herausforderung grundsätzlich erst einmal zu.

Das eigene Gesicht und die Fassung zu wahren, ist für sie wichtiger als Direktheit und Offenheit, auch wenn dies zu einer Konsequenz führt.

Nörgeln, kennen Chinesinnen in der Regel nicht. Sie identifizieren sich stark mit ihrer Arbeit und verbringen viel Zeit in der Firma.

Die Frauen aus China sind sehr bescheiden und auf die Familie bezogen. Wer eine chinesische Partnerin wählt, kann sicher sein, dass sie gern Kinder haben möchte.

Der Wunsch, schnell zu heiraten, ist ebenso sehr ausgeprägt. Ihn erwartet am Abend, wenn er gestresst vom Job kommt, Häuslichkeit.

Die Partnerin hat gewöhnlich ein leckeres, oftmals exotisches Essen für ihn gekocht und steht unterstützend zur Seite.

Welcher Mann wünscht sich das nicht? Die meisten chinesischen Frauen suchen nach einem gut gebildeten und im Beruf erfolgreichen Mann.

Im Idealfall besitzt er auch noch eine eigene Wohnung. Chinesinnen wünschen es sich sehnlich, mit einem starken Mann ein angenehmes Leben zu führen.

Daher kommen deutsche und westeuropäische Männer bei vielen chinesischen Frauen sehr gut an, denn sie gelten als erfolgreich, selbstbewusst, stabil und sportlich.

In addition to the 16 living orders, there are 9 extinct orders and one superfamily known only from fossils. The relationship of these to living groups and to each other is controversial.

The extinct Arthropleuridea was long considered a distinct myriapod class, although work in the early 21st century established the group as a subclass of millipedes.

Below are two proposed arrangements of fossil millipede groups. The extinct order Zosterogrammida , a chilognath of uncertain position, [9] is not shown.

Although the relationships of millipede orders are still the subject of debate, the class Diplopoda as a whole is considered a monophyletic group of arthropods: all millipedes are more closely related to each other than to any other arthropods.

Diplopoda is a class within the arthropod subphylum Myriapoda , the myriapods, which includes centipedes class Chilopoda as well as the lesser-known pauropods class Pauropoda and symphylans class Symphyla.

Within myriapods, the closest relatives or sister group of millipedes has long been considered the pauropods, which also have a collum and diplosegments.

The differences between millipedes and centipedes are a common question from the general public. Body styles vary greatly between major millipede groups.

In the basal subclass Penicillata , consisting of the tiny bristle millipedes , the exoskeleton is soft and uncalcified, and is covered in prominent setae or bristles.

All other millipedes, belonging to the subclass Chilognatha, have a hardened exoskeleton. The chilognaths are in turn divided into two infraclasses: the Pentazonia , containing relatively short-bodied groups such as pill millipedes , and the Helminthomorpha "worm-like" millipedes , which contains the vast majority of species, with long, many-segmented bodies.

The head of a millipede is typically rounded above and flattened below and bears a pair of large mandibles in front of a plate-like structure called a gnathochilarium "jaw lip".

Their function is unknown, [5] but they also occur in some centipedes , and are possibly used to measure humidity or light levels in the surrounding environment.

Millipede eyes consist of several simple flat-lensed ocelli arranged in a group or patch on each side of the head. These patches are also called ocular fields or ocellaria.

Many species of millipedes, including the entire orders Polydesmida , Siphoniulida , Glomeridesmida , Siphonophorida and Platydesmida , and cave-dwelling millipedes such as Causeyella and Trichopetalum , had ancestors that could see but have subsequently lost their eyes and are blind.

Millipede bodies may be flattened or cylindrical, and are composed of numerous metameric segments , each with an exoskeleton consisting of four chitinous plates: a single plate above the tergite , one at each side pleurites , and a plate on the underside sternite where the legs attach.

In many millipedes, such as Merocheta and Juliformia, these plates are fused to varying degrees, sometimes forming a single cylindrical ring.

The plates are typically hard, being impregnated with calcium salts. The first segment behind the head is legless and known as a collum from the Latin for neck or collar.

The second, third, and fourth body segments bear a single pair of legs each and are known as "haplosegments" the three haplosegments are sometimes referred to as a " thorax " [12].

The remaining segments, from the fifth to the posterior, are properly known as diplosegments or double segments, formed by the fusion of two embryonic segments.

Each diplosegment bears two pairs of legs, rather than just one as in centipedes. In some millipedes, the last few segments may be legless.

The terms "segment" or "body ring" are often used interchangeably to refer to both haplo- and diplosegments. The final segment is known as the telson and consists of a legless preanal ring, a pair of anal valves closeable plates around the anus , and a small scale below the anus.

Millipedes in several orders have keel-like extensions of the body-wall known as paranota , which can vary widely in shape, size, and texture; modifications include lobes, papillae, ridges, crests, spines and notches.

The legs are composed of seven segments, and attach on the underside of the body. The legs of an individual are generally rather similar to each other, although often longer in males than females, and males of some species may have a reduced or enlarged first pair of legs.

Despite the common name, no millipede has been discovered with 1, legs: common species have between 34 and legs, and the record is held by Illacme plenipes , with individuals possessing up to legs — more than any other creature on Earth.

Millipedes breathe through two pairs of spiracles located ventrally on each segment near the base of the legs.

The heart runs the entire length of the body, with an aorta stretching into the head. The excretory organs are two pairs of malpighian tubules , located near the mid-part of the gut.

The digestive tract is a simple tube with two pairs of salivary glands to help digest the food. Millipedes show a diversity of mating styles and structures.

In the basal order Polyxenida bristle millipedes , mating is indirect: males deposit spermatophores onto webs they secrete with special glands, and the spermatophores are subsequently picked up by females.

The location of the gonopods differs between groups: in males of the Pentazonia they are located at the rear of the body and known as telopods and may also function in grasping females, while in the Helminthomorpha — the vast majority of species — they are located on the seventh body segment.

Gonopods occur in a diversity of shapes and sizes, and in the range from closely resembling walking legs to complex structures quite unlike legs at all.

In some groups, the gonopods are kept retracted within the body; in others they project forward parallel to the body.

Gonopod morphology is the predominant means of determining species among millipedes: the structures may differ greatly between closely related species but very little within a species.

The genital openings gonopores of both sexes are located on the underside of the third body segment near the second pair of legs and may be accompanied in the male by one or two penes which deposit the sperm packets onto the gonopods.

In the female, the genital pores open into paired small sacs called cyphopods or vulvae, which are covered by small hood-like lids, and are used to store the sperm after copulation.

Millipede sperm lack flagella , a unique trait among myriapods. In all except the bristle millipedes, copulation occurs with the two individuals facing one another.

Copulation may be preceded by male behaviours such as tapping with antennae, running along the back of the female, offering edible glandular secretions, or in the case of some pill-millipedes, stridulation or "chirping".

Females lay from ten to three hundred eggs at a time, depending on species, fertilising them with the stored sperm as they do so.

Many species deposit the eggs on moist soil or organic detritus, but some construct nests lined with dried faeces , and may protect the eggs within silk cocoons.

The young hatch after a few weeks, and typically have only three pairs of legs, followed by up to four legless segments.

As they grow, they continually moult , adding further segments and legs as they do so. Some species moult within specially prepared chambers of soil or silk, [39] and may also shelter in these during wet weather, and most species eat the discarded exoskeleton after moulting.

The adult stage, when individuals become reproductively mature, is generally reached in the final moult stage, which varies between species and orders, although some species continue to moult after adulthood.

Furthermore, some species alternate between reproductive and non-reproductive stages after maturity, a phenomenon known as periodomorphosis, in which the reproductive structures regress during non-reproductive stages.

Millipedes occur on all continents except Antarctica, and occupy almost all terrestrial habitats, ranging as far north as the Arctic Circle in Iceland, Norway, and Central Russia, and as far south as Santa Cruz Province, Argentina.

In temperate zones , millipedes are most abundant in moist deciduous forests, and may reach densities of over 1, individuals per square metre.

Other habitats include coniferous forests, caves, and alpine ecosystems. The diplosegments of millipedes have evolved in conjunction with their burrowing habits, and nearly all millipedes adopt a mainly subterranean lifestyle.

They use three main methods of burrowing; bulldozing, wedging and boring. Members of the orders Julida , Spirobolida and Spirostreptida , lower their heads and barge their way into the substrate, the collum being the portion of their exoskeleton that leads the way.

Flat-backed millipedes in the order Polydesmida tend to insert their front end, like a wedge, into a horizontal crevice, and then widen the crack by pushing upwards with their legs, the paranota in this instance constituting the main lifting surface.

Boring is used by members of the order Polyzoniida. These have smaller segments at the front and increasingly large ones further back; they propel themselves forward into a crack with their legs, the wedge-shaped body widening the gap as they go.

Some millipedes have adopted an above-ground lifestyle and lost the burrowing habit. This may be because they are too small to have enough leverage to burrow, or because they are too large to make the effort worthwhile, or in some cases because they move relatively fast for a millipede and are active predators.

Most millipedes are detritivores and feed on decomposing vegetation, feces, or organic matter mixed with soil. They often play important roles in the breakdown and decomposition of plant litter : estimates of consumption rates for individual species range from 1 to 11 percent of all leaf litter, depending on species and region, and collectively millipedes may consume nearly all the leaf litter in a region.

The leaf litter is fragmented in the millipede gut and excreted as pellets of leaf fragments, algae, fungi, and bacteria, which facilitates decomposition by the microorganisms.

Millipedes in the order Polyxenida graze algae from bark, and Platydesmida feed on fungi. Millipedes are preyed on by a wide range of animals, including various reptiles , amphibians , birds , mammals , and insects.

Due to their lack of speed and their inability to bite or sting, millipedes' primary defence mechanism is to curl into a tight coil — protecting their delicate legs inside an armoured exoskeleton.

Many species also emit various foul-smelling liquid secretions through microscopic holes called ozopores the openings of "odoriferous" or "repugnatorial glands" , along the sides of their bodies as a secondary defence.

Among the many irritant and toxic chemicals found in these secretions are alkaloids , benzoquinones , phenols , terpenoids , and hydrogen cyanide.

Primates such as capuchin monkeys and lemurs have been observed intentionally irritating millipedes in order to rub the chemicals on themselves to repel mosquitoes.

The bristly millipedes order Polyxenida lack both an armoured exoskeleton and odiferous glands, and instead are covered in numerous bristles that in at least one species, Polyxenus fasciculatus , detach and entangle ants.

Some millipedes form mutualistic relationships with organisms of other species, in which both species benefit from the interaction, or commensal relationships , in which only one species benefits while the other is unaffected.

Several species form close relationships with ants, a relationship known as myrmecophily , especially within the family Pyrgodesmidae Polydesmida , which contains "obligate myrmecophiles", species which have only been found in ant colonies.

More species are "facultative myrmecophiles", being non-exclusively associated with ants, including many species of Polyxenida that have been found in ant nests around the world.

Many millipede species have commensal relationships with mites of the orders Mesostigmata and Astigmata. Many of these mites are believed to be phoretic rather than parasitic, which means that they use the millipede host as a means of dispersal.

A novel interaction between millipedes and mosses was described in , in which individuals of the newly discovered Psammodesmus bryophorus was found to have up to ten species living on its dorsal surface, in what may provide camouflage for the millipede and increased dispersal for the mosses.

Millipedes generally have little impact on human economic or social well-being, especially in comparison with insects, although locally they can be a nuisance or agricultural pest.

Millipedes do not bite, and their defensive secretions are mostly harmless to humans — usually causing only minor discolouration on the skin — but the secretions of some tropical species may cause pain, itching, local erythema , edema , blisters , eczema , and occasionally cracked skin.

First aid consists of flushing the area thoroughly with water; further treatment is aimed at relieving the local effects.

Some millipedes are considered household pests, including Xenobolus carnifex which can infest thatched roofs in India, [75] and Ommatoiulus moreleti , which periodically invades homes in Australia.

Other species exhibit periodical swarming behaviour , which can result in home invasions, [76] crop damage, [77] and train delays when the tracks become slippery with the crushed remains of hundreds of millipedes.

Some of the larger millipedes in the orders Spirobolida, Spirostreptida, and Sphaerotheriida are popular as pets. Millipedes appear in folklore and traditional medicine around the world.

Some cultures associate millipede activity with coming rains. Millipedes have also inspired and played roles in scientific research.

In , a walking vehicle with 36 legs was designed, said to have been inspired by a study of millipede locomotion. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Class of arthropods. For other uses, see Millipede disambiguation. Further information: List of millipede families.

The gonopods of Nipponesmus shirinensis are quite unlike its walking legs. Left gonopod of Oxidus gracilis. False colour SEM image, scale bar: 0.

Further information: Anti-predator adaptation. In Dindal, Daniel L. Soil Biology Guide. Hoffman, Richard L. Bulletin of the British Myriapod Group.

Invertebrate Zoology, 7th edition. Cengage Learning. In: Zhang, Z. Animal biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness" PDF.

Bibcode : PLoSO Annual Review of Entomology. Natural Enemies of Terrestrial Molluscs. In Bousquets, J. Biodiversidad, taxonomia y biogeografia de artropodos de Mexico.

University of Tennessee: Entomology and Plant Pathology. Retrieved 17 July Journal of Paleontology. Evolution: Education and Outreach.

National Geographic. Archived from the original on 4 March Retrieved 25 February Columbia University Press. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae: secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis.

Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii. Sofia, Bulgaria: Pensoft. Classification of the Diplopoda. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research.

Arthropleurida and Pselaphognatha Atelocerata, Diplopoda : characters, phylogenetic relationships and construction".

Verhandlungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins in Hamburg. The Kansas School Naturalist. Archived from the original on Retrieved Millipedes: Keys and Notes for the Identification of the Species.

Brill Archive. In Levin, Simon A.

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Die Chinesen sind zurückhaltend und scheinbar passiv, doch in Wirklichkeit sind sie unabhängig und mutig. Hinter der sanften Fassade verbirgt sich ein einzigartiger und starker Charakter.

Sie sagen nie, dass irgendetwas einfach unmöglich ist, sondern sie stimmen jeder Herausforderung grundsätzlich erst einmal zu.

Das eigene Gesicht und die Fassung zu wahren, ist für sie wichtiger als Direktheit und Offenheit, auch wenn dies zu einer Konsequenz führt.

Nörgeln, kennen Chinesinnen in der Regel nicht. Sie identifizieren sich stark mit ihrer Arbeit und verbringen viel Zeit in der Firma.

Die Frauen aus China sind sehr bescheiden und auf die Familie bezogen. Wer eine chinesische Partnerin wählt, kann sicher sein, dass sie gern Kinder haben möchte.

Der Wunsch, schnell zu heiraten, ist ebenso sehr ausgeprägt. Ihn erwartet am Abend, wenn er gestresst vom Job kommt, Häuslichkeit.

Die Partnerin hat gewöhnlich ein leckeres, oftmals exotisches Essen für ihn gekocht und steht unterstützend zur Seite. Welcher Mann wünscht sich das nicht?

Die meisten chinesischen Frauen suchen nach einem gut gebildeten und im Beruf erfolgreichen Mann. Im Idealfall besitzt er auch noch eine eigene Wohnung.

Chinesinnen wünschen es sich sehnlich, mit einem starken Mann ein angenehmes Leben zu führen. Daher kommen deutsche und westeuropäische Männer bei vielen chinesischen Frauen sehr gut an, denn sie gelten als erfolgreich, selbstbewusst, stabil und sportlich.

Nur wer offen und gelassen mit seiner chinesischen Partnerin kommuniziert, wird ebenso kritische Momente souverän lösen können. Hin und wieder sollte der Mann die Frau zum Lachen bringen und auch für romantische Momente sorgen.

Chinesinnen mögen des Weiteren gemeinsame Ausflüge, da sie sehr gern Zeit mit ihrem Partner verbringen und etwas unternehmen. Häufig stellt sich hierbei die Frage, wer den Anfang machen darf oder sogar muss?

Wie unauffällig oder direkt sollte dies geschehen? Im traditionellen China geht der Mann auf die Frau zu.

Auch im Lokal muss er die Rechnung bezahlen. Die Frau ist zurückhaltend und zeigt ihr Interesse nur sehr vorsichtig.

Daher ist es wichtig, lieber einfühlsam zu sein als voreilig und etwas Geduld zu üben. Das ist das Grundprinzip beim Flirten mit einer chinesischen Frau.

Vietnamesische Frauen unterscheiden sich in vielen Hinsichten von Frauen aus anderen Ländern. Natürlich unterscheiden sich die Charaktere der einzelnen Frauen, jedoch lassen sich einige Eigenschaften aufzählen, die für Vietnamesinnen Flirten mit kurdischen Frauen: Frauen aus Kurdistan.

Flirten mit einer Isländerin: Frauen aus Island. Flirten mit irischen Frauen: Frauen aus Irland. Flirten mit sibirischen Frauen: Frauen Sibirien.

Flirten mit pakistanischen Frauen: Frauen Pakistan. The living members of the Diplopoda are divided into sixteen orders in two subclasses.

All other millipedes belong to the subclass Chilognatha consisting of two infraclasses: Pentazonia, containing the short-bodied pill millipedes, and Helminthomorpha worm-like millipedes , containing the great majority of the species.

Recent cladistic and molecular studies have challenged the traditional classification schemes above, and in particular the position of the orders Siphoniulida and Polyzoniida is not yet well established.

Millipedes are among the first animals to have colonised land during the Silurian period. There are two major groups of millipedes whose members are all extinct: the Archipolypoda "ancient, many-legged ones" which contain the oldest known terrestrial animals, and Arthropleuridea , which contain the largest known land invertebrates.

As oxygen levels lowered through time, arthropods became smaller. The history of scientific millipede classification began with Carl Linnaeus , who in his 10th edition of Systema Naturae , , named seven species of Julus as "Insecta Aptera" wingless insects.

From to , millipede taxonomy was driven by relatively few researchers at any given time, with major contributions by Carl Attems , Karl Wilhelm Verhoeff and Ralph Vary Chamberlin , who each described over 1, species, as well as Orator F.

Cook , Filippo Silvestri , R. Pocock , and Henry W. In , the Dutch biologist C. Jeekel published a comprehensive listing of all known millipede genera and families described between and in his Nomenclator Generum et Familiarum Diplopodorum , a work credited as launching the "modern era" of millipede taxonomy.

Hoffman published a classification of millipedes which recognized the Penicillata, Pentazonia, and Helminthomorpha, [18] and the first phylogenetic analysis of millipede orders using modern cladistic methods was published in by Henrik Enghoff of Denmark.

Shear placed the order Siphoniulida within the larger group Nematophora. In addition to the 16 living orders, there are 9 extinct orders and one superfamily known only from fossils.

The relationship of these to living groups and to each other is controversial. The extinct Arthropleuridea was long considered a distinct myriapod class, although work in the early 21st century established the group as a subclass of millipedes.

Below are two proposed arrangements of fossil millipede groups. The extinct order Zosterogrammida , a chilognath of uncertain position, [9] is not shown.

Although the relationships of millipede orders are still the subject of debate, the class Diplopoda as a whole is considered a monophyletic group of arthropods: all millipedes are more closely related to each other than to any other arthropods.

Diplopoda is a class within the arthropod subphylum Myriapoda , the myriapods, which includes centipedes class Chilopoda as well as the lesser-known pauropods class Pauropoda and symphylans class Symphyla.

Within myriapods, the closest relatives or sister group of millipedes has long been considered the pauropods, which also have a collum and diplosegments.

The differences between millipedes and centipedes are a common question from the general public. Body styles vary greatly between major millipede groups.

In the basal subclass Penicillata , consisting of the tiny bristle millipedes , the exoskeleton is soft and uncalcified, and is covered in prominent setae or bristles.

All other millipedes, belonging to the subclass Chilognatha, have a hardened exoskeleton. The chilognaths are in turn divided into two infraclasses: the Pentazonia , containing relatively short-bodied groups such as pill millipedes , and the Helminthomorpha "worm-like" millipedes , which contains the vast majority of species, with long, many-segmented bodies.

The head of a millipede is typically rounded above and flattened below and bears a pair of large mandibles in front of a plate-like structure called a gnathochilarium "jaw lip".

Their function is unknown, [5] but they also occur in some centipedes , and are possibly used to measure humidity or light levels in the surrounding environment.

Millipede eyes consist of several simple flat-lensed ocelli arranged in a group or patch on each side of the head. These patches are also called ocular fields or ocellaria.

Many species of millipedes, including the entire orders Polydesmida , Siphoniulida , Glomeridesmida , Siphonophorida and Platydesmida , and cave-dwelling millipedes such as Causeyella and Trichopetalum , had ancestors that could see but have subsequently lost their eyes and are blind.

Millipede bodies may be flattened or cylindrical, and are composed of numerous metameric segments , each with an exoskeleton consisting of four chitinous plates: a single plate above the tergite , one at each side pleurites , and a plate on the underside sternite where the legs attach.

In many millipedes, such as Merocheta and Juliformia, these plates are fused to varying degrees, sometimes forming a single cylindrical ring.

The plates are typically hard, being impregnated with calcium salts. The first segment behind the head is legless and known as a collum from the Latin for neck or collar.

The second, third, and fourth body segments bear a single pair of legs each and are known as "haplosegments" the three haplosegments are sometimes referred to as a " thorax " [12].

The remaining segments, from the fifth to the posterior, are properly known as diplosegments or double segments, formed by the fusion of two embryonic segments.

Each diplosegment bears two pairs of legs, rather than just one as in centipedes. In some millipedes, the last few segments may be legless.

The terms "segment" or "body ring" are often used interchangeably to refer to both haplo- and diplosegments.

The final segment is known as the telson and consists of a legless preanal ring, a pair of anal valves closeable plates around the anus , and a small scale below the anus.

Millipedes in several orders have keel-like extensions of the body-wall known as paranota , which can vary widely in shape, size, and texture; modifications include lobes, papillae, ridges, crests, spines and notches.

The legs are composed of seven segments, and attach on the underside of the body. The legs of an individual are generally rather similar to each other, although often longer in males than females, and males of some species may have a reduced or enlarged first pair of legs.

Despite the common name, no millipede has been discovered with 1, legs: common species have between 34 and legs, and the record is held by Illacme plenipes , with individuals possessing up to legs — more than any other creature on Earth.

Millipedes breathe through two pairs of spiracles located ventrally on each segment near the base of the legs.

The heart runs the entire length of the body, with an aorta stretching into the head. The excretory organs are two pairs of malpighian tubules , located near the mid-part of the gut.

The digestive tract is a simple tube with two pairs of salivary glands to help digest the food. Millipedes show a diversity of mating styles and structures.

In the basal order Polyxenida bristle millipedes , mating is indirect: males deposit spermatophores onto webs they secrete with special glands, and the spermatophores are subsequently picked up by females.

The location of the gonopods differs between groups: in males of the Pentazonia they are located at the rear of the body and known as telopods and may also function in grasping females, while in the Helminthomorpha — the vast majority of species — they are located on the seventh body segment.

Gonopods occur in a diversity of shapes and sizes, and in the range from closely resembling walking legs to complex structures quite unlike legs at all.

In some groups, the gonopods are kept retracted within the body; in others they project forward parallel to the body. Gonopod morphology is the predominant means of determining species among millipedes: the structures may differ greatly between closely related species but very little within a species.

The genital openings gonopores of both sexes are located on the underside of the third body segment near the second pair of legs and may be accompanied in the male by one or two penes which deposit the sperm packets onto the gonopods.

In the female, the genital pores open into paired small sacs called cyphopods or vulvae, which are covered by small hood-like lids, and are used to store the sperm after copulation.

Millipede sperm lack flagella , a unique trait among myriapods. In all except the bristle millipedes, copulation occurs with the two individuals facing one another.

Copulation may be preceded by male behaviours such as tapping with antennae, running along the back of the female, offering edible glandular secretions, or in the case of some pill-millipedes, stridulation or "chirping".

Females lay from ten to three hundred eggs at a time, depending on species, fertilising them with the stored sperm as they do so.

Many species deposit the eggs on moist soil or organic detritus, but some construct nests lined with dried faeces , and may protect the eggs within silk cocoons.

The young hatch after a few weeks, and typically have only three pairs of legs, followed by up to four legless segments.

As they grow, they continually moult , adding further segments and legs as they do so. Some species moult within specially prepared chambers of soil or silk, [39] and may also shelter in these during wet weather, and most species eat the discarded exoskeleton after moulting.

The adult stage, when individuals become reproductively mature, is generally reached in the final moult stage, which varies between species and orders, although some species continue to moult after adulthood.

Furthermore, some species alternate between reproductive and non-reproductive stages after maturity, a phenomenon known as periodomorphosis, in which the reproductive structures regress during non-reproductive stages.

Millipedes occur on all continents except Antarctica, and occupy almost all terrestrial habitats, ranging as far north as the Arctic Circle in Iceland, Norway, and Central Russia, and as far south as Santa Cruz Province, Argentina.

In temperate zones , millipedes are most abundant in moist deciduous forests, and may reach densities of over 1, individuals per square metre. Other habitats include coniferous forests, caves, and alpine ecosystems.

The diplosegments of millipedes have evolved in conjunction with their burrowing habits, and nearly all millipedes adopt a mainly subterranean lifestyle.

They use three main methods of burrowing; bulldozing, wedging and boring. Members of the orders Julida , Spirobolida and Spirostreptida , lower their heads and barge their way into the substrate, the collum being the portion of their exoskeleton that leads the way.

Flat-backed millipedes in the order Polydesmida tend to insert their front end, like a wedge, into a horizontal crevice, and then widen the crack by pushing upwards with their legs, the paranota in this instance constituting the main lifting surface.

Boring is used by members of the order Polyzoniida. These have smaller segments at the front and increasingly large ones further back; they propel themselves forward into a crack with their legs, the wedge-shaped body widening the gap as they go.

Some millipedes have adopted an above-ground lifestyle and lost the burrowing habit. This may be because they are too small to have enough leverage to burrow, or because they are too large to make the effort worthwhile, or in some cases because they move relatively fast for a millipede and are active predators.

Most millipedes are detritivores and feed on decomposing vegetation, feces, or organic matter mixed with soil. They often play important roles in the breakdown and decomposition of plant litter : estimates of consumption rates for individual species range from 1 to 11 percent of all leaf litter, depending on species and region, and collectively millipedes may consume nearly all the leaf litter in a region.

The leaf litter is fragmented in the millipede gut and excreted as pellets of leaf fragments, algae, fungi, and bacteria, which facilitates decomposition by the microorganisms.

Millipedes in the order Polyxenida graze algae from bark, and Platydesmida feed on fungi. Millipedes are preyed on by a wide range of animals, including various reptiles , amphibians , birds , mammals , and insects.

Due to their lack of speed and their inability to bite or sting, millipedes' primary defence mechanism is to curl into a tight coil — protecting their delicate legs inside an armoured exoskeleton.

Many species also emit various foul-smelling liquid secretions through microscopic holes called ozopores the openings of "odoriferous" or "repugnatorial glands" , along the sides of their bodies as a secondary defence.

Among the many irritant and toxic chemicals found in these secretions are alkaloids , benzoquinones , phenols , terpenoids , and hydrogen cyanide.

Primates such as capuchin monkeys and lemurs have been observed intentionally irritating millipedes in order to rub the chemicals on themselves to repel mosquitoes.

The bristly millipedes order Polyxenida lack both an armoured exoskeleton and odiferous glands, and instead are covered in numerous bristles that in at least one species, Polyxenus fasciculatus , detach and entangle ants.

Some millipedes form mutualistic relationships with organisms of other species, in which both species benefit from the interaction, or commensal relationships , in which only one species benefits while the other is unaffected.

Several species form close relationships with ants, a relationship known as myrmecophily , especially within the family Pyrgodesmidae Polydesmida , which contains "obligate myrmecophiles", species which have only been found in ant colonies.

More species are "facultative myrmecophiles", being non-exclusively associated with ants, including many species of Polyxenida that have been found in ant nests around the world.

Many millipede species have commensal relationships with mites of the orders Mesostigmata and Astigmata. Many of these mites are believed to be phoretic rather than parasitic, which means that they use the millipede host as a means of dispersal.

A novel interaction between millipedes and mosses was described in , in which individuals of the newly discovered Psammodesmus bryophorus was found to have up to ten species living on its dorsal surface, in what may provide camouflage for the millipede and increased dispersal for the mosses.

Millipedes generally have little impact on human economic or social well-being, especially in comparison with insects, although locally they can be a nuisance or agricultural pest.

Millipedes do not bite, and their defensive secretions are mostly harmless to humans — usually causing only minor discolouration on the skin — but the secretions of some tropical species may cause pain, itching, local erythema , edema , blisters , eczema , and occasionally cracked skin.

First aid consists of flushing the area thoroughly with water; further treatment is aimed at relieving the local effects. Some millipedes are considered household pests, including Xenobolus carnifex which can infest thatched roofs in India, [75] and Ommatoiulus moreleti , which periodically invades homes in Australia.

Other species exhibit periodical swarming behaviour , which can result in home invasions, [76] crop damage, [77] and train delays when the tracks become slippery with the crushed remains of hundreds of millipedes.

Some of the larger millipedes in the orders Spirobolida, Spirostreptida, and Sphaerotheriida are popular as pets. Millipedes appear in folklore and traditional medicine around the world.

Some cultures associate millipede activity with coming rains. Millipedes have also inspired and played roles in scientific research.

In , a walking vehicle with 36 legs was designed, said to have been inspired by a study of millipede locomotion.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Class of arthropods. For other uses, see Millipede disambiguation. Further information: List of millipede families.

The gonopods of Nipponesmus shirinensis are quite unlike its walking legs. Left gonopod of Oxidus gracilis. False colour SEM image, scale bar: 0. Further information: Anti-predator adaptation.

In Dindal, Daniel L. Soil Biology Guide. Hoffman, Richard L. Bulletin of the British Myriapod Group. Invertebrate Zoology, 7th edition. Cengage Learning.

In: Zhang, Z. Animal biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness" PDF. Bibcode : PLoSO Annual Review of Entomology.

Natural Enemies of Terrestrial Molluscs. In Bousquets, J. Biodiversidad, taxonomia y biogeografia de artropodos de Mexico.

University of Tennessee: Entomology and Plant Pathology. Retrieved 17 July Journal of Paleontology. Evolution: Education and Outreach.

National Geographic. Archived from the original on 4 March Retrieved 25 February Columbia University Press.

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